.. ,,, . , ,. .


** " ( ) " **





  > > >

- - - - 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12

« + | ( ) 11 | »

   
01-21-2011   : 1
:
:
::   ::
:
 

: Jan 2010
: 1
:
:
  : oman
:
:
: 8,497 [+]
: 4.17
: 2 [+]
: 181
: 340

1 

. .
:
:
    MSN

:
265 ( ) 11

( ) 11
:
1- : .
: ( ) ɡ .
: ( ) . .
1- : ǡ . ǡ ɡ .
2 - : .
: .
3- ɺ ( ).
4- : ɡ ʡ ɡ .
: ɡ ɡ .
: ɡ ɡ .
5- ɡ ɺ .
:
11-1-: : ġ ɡ ɡ ɡ .
2- 11-2 : .
3-11-2: .
1-1- .

(1):
1- ( ) ( ) ( ) .
2- ѡ .
3- ( ).


(2):
2- ( ( ).
3- ( ) ( ).

(3)
:
:
(4):
1- () ʡ XeF6 Xe .
2- ( ) .
3- ( ).
4- 4.10.
(5):
- A,B ( ) B ( )
- C,D,A,B

- () 3 .


( :
( Mg2+) :
1- .
2- .
3- .
Mg(aq)2+ + CaO(S) → Mg(OH)2 + Ca2+(aq)
Mg(OH)2(s) + HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)






MgCl2(aq) → Mg(s) + Cl2(g)

(9):
1- : 14100C.
2- 4 .
3- .
(10):
Ý- : 115.20C.
ȝ- ԡ .




(11):
- . - .
- . - .
- . - .
- . - .
- .

(12):
: 3:1 (+3) ( -1) .
(13):
4.07g + 24.27g= (C ) + (H )
= 28.34g
71.66g = = 100-28.34 (Cl )
4.071.008= 4.04mol = (H )
24.2712.01= 2.02 mol = (C)
71.6635.45= 2.02 mol = (Cl )

= 2.02mol
: Cl: C: H
1:1:2
CH2Cl
(14):
1- - CH2O ( 6)
- P2O5 ( 2)
2- = 30.4g100-69.6 = (N )
69.632.0=2.2mol= (S)
30.414= 2.2 mol = (N )
: 1:1
4= 18446 46 SN 4 S4N4.
















:
:
1- 2- 3- 4- 5-
:
- O2- - Cs -As


: Al3+ O2- 2Al3+ 3O2- Al2O3.
:
Ý- ( ).
ȝ- .
- Be2+, Mg2+,Ca2+,Sr2+


:
- Be(g) + 900kJ → Be(g)+ + e-

- ( ) : B.O.
-



2-
- 14+ 30.97 + 2x35.45= 115.87g/mol =
347.66115.87= 3
3 N3P3Cl6
- .
3- N O : N2O3 ( )
NO2 ( ).
NO ( ).
N2O ( ).
N2O4 ( ).
N2O5 ( ).
S F : SF2 ( ).
SF6 ( ).
P Cl : PCl3 ( ).
PCl5 ( ).
Na I NaI ( ).
:
: : ġ ɡ ɡ ɡ .
11-2-: .
2-11-2: .
:
- ѡ (1).
- : Ŀ
- .
(1):
F= 7 K= 1 N= 5 O= 6 Be= 2 Br = 7 Ca=2
2-2: :
2-: VSEPR ɡ ɡ .
2-11-4: .

(3):
F2O - (O ) 6 .
- .
- 4 .

CO2 - (C ) 4 .
- .
- .

PH3 - ( P ) 5 .
- .
- .

AlCl3 - (Al ) .
- .
- .

NaH - ǡ ɡ . .


(4):
H2S ( ) 102.50.




CaH2 1800


(5):
1- H2O CO2 .
H2O : (O ) ɡ :





CO2: ( C ) ɡ :






2- SF6 ( ).



3 :
:
11-2-: .
4-11-1: .
(6)
1- - NCl3 ( ) - BeH2 ( )
- O2 ( ) - CHCl3 ( )
3- - .
- BCl3 .
NCl3 .
:
( .( Electric Dipole moment .
(Symmetric)
4
:
11-1: : ġ ɡ ɡ ɡ .
11-2-: : ɡ ɡ .
11-2-: .
1-11-1: .
:
1- ѡ .
2- :
1- F2,Cl2,Br2
.
2- ( ).
3-
(7):
1- . F,Cl,Br,I

.
1- .
( :
1 23
H2O ( ).
NH3 ( ).
CH4 ( ).
H2S ( ǡ ).
HI ( )
H2O2 ( ǡ ).
2- :
: .
: .
(9):
1- .
2- .
3- HI ȡ NH2OH .

:
: ɡ .
: ʡ .
: : .
: .
: : .
: .
(10):
1- .
2- : .
: .

1- ( ) 2- () 3- () 4- () 5- ()
: : CF4
OF2 :
NI3 :
HCN :
: ɡ .
:
.
:
Ý- CHCl3 ( ).
ȝ- NH3 ( ).
- Cs( ).
2- HI :
PF3:
ClF :
3- Ca : 2 Br : 1 O: 2 S :2
P : 3 Si : 4

: . ϡ ݡ ɡ , .
:
1- ( ) :
NaCl(aq) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
.
2- .
3- .
4- .
5- pH ( ) 14 ( ) pOH ( ) 14 ( ) pH pOH 14 .

Solutions
-1-1 Solutions in Living Systems
3-1-2 Solutions in Non-living Systems :
:
11-3- : .
11- 3 - : . (1) :
1- .
2-


.
.

3-
.
4- ( ) .
3-2 Electrolytes and Non -electrolytes :
:
11-3- : ( ) ().
4-11-2 : .
(1) :
.
- (4) :






















:
1- .
2- .
(2) :
HCl H3O+ Cl- .
C6H12O6
(Arrhenius) :
1- .
2- :
Na+ Ca2+ Al3+ Cu2+ H+ NH4+
Cl- S2- SO42- PO43- OH- CO32-
3- .
4- .
( ) .
( ) . (Cathode) (Anode) . .
3-3 Solubility
3-3 -1 Factors Affecting Solubility
:
11-3- : .
11- 3- : .
11-3- : .
* (2 ):
:
1- . .
2- .
..

:
1- NaOH 0C NaOH 70C .
2- 2NaOH + H2O + CO2 Na2CO3 + H2O 3- ( ) .
4-
.
:
1- ) .
2- :










3- -

- .
- ( ) Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 .





- :














































(2) : Heat of Solution:
.
Hsol∆(Solution = sol ) . Hsol∆ ( ) ( ) . ∆H ( =∆Hsol ) ( = ∆Hsol).
( ) , . . Na CL . .
NaCl (s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ∆H=+774 kg/mol
. ∆HL.e.
. ∆HH .
Na+(g) + Cl-(g) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq
∆HH = - 770 kg/mol
:
NaCl (s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
mol Kg/HH = +4∆HL.e. + ∆= Hsol∆
. .
AgF (s) Ag+(g) + F-(g) HL.e. = + 910 KJ/mol Ag+(g) + F-(g) Ag+(aq) + F-(aq) HH= -931.4 K

AgF (s) Ag+(aq) + F-(aq)
HH = - 20.5 KJ/mol + HL.eHsol =
, , , , Heat of Solvation .
3-3 -2 Crystallization
(3 ) :
- ( ) .
- : NaCl
: KClO3
- NaHCO3 = 13 g/100 mL K2SO4 = 15 g/100 mL NH4HCO3 = KClO3 = 13 g/100 mL NaCl = 35g/100 mL KCl = 39 g/100 mL NH4Cl=46g/100mL KNO3 = 64 g/100 mL
-4 Concentration of Solutions
:
11-3- : : .
11- 3- : .
(4) :
1-
= 74.5 g/mol KCl
KCl = 1 10-3 74.5 = 1.34 10-5 mol
=
4 10-3 = 1.34 10-5
= 1.34 10-5 4 10-3 = 0.335 10-2 L
= 3.35 mL
2-
HCHO = 30 g/mol
=
12.3 = 2.5
= 12.3 2.5 = 30.75 mol
= () = 30.75 30 = 922.5 g
3-
HCl = 18.2 36.5 = 0.5 mol
() = 250 1000 = 0.25 kg
HCl = 0.5 0.25 = 2 m
(5) :
1-
= 2 10-3 g
= 1000 g
(ppm) = 2 10-3 1000 = 2 ppm
) g ((mg) :
. (g)
.(g)
2-
=
Fe2(SO4)3 = 0.24 1.2 = 0.29 mg
(6) :
18% = 30 100%
100 = 30 18 = 540
= 540 100 = 5.4 L
= 5.4 1000 = 5400 mL
= 5400 mL = 5.4 L
(7) :
1-
33% = 40 100%
100 = 40 33
= 1320
= 1320 100 = 13.2 g
= 13.2 g
2-
= 0.45 mol
= 1- 0.45 = 0.55 mol
C6H6 = 78 g/mol
= 0.45 78 = 35.1 g
CHCl3 = 119.5 g/mol
= 0.55 119.5 = 65.725 g
() = 35.1 + 65.725 = 100.825 g
= 35.1 100.825 100%
= 34.8%

1- 12 g NaCl
2- NaOH
1.5 mol
3- 1 mol SO2 1 mol SO3
-
-
-
-5 Diluted Solutions :
:
11- 3- : ɡ .
11- 3 : ѡ .
( :
1-
M 1 . V 1 = M 2 . V 2
250 0.01 = 4 V2
V2 = (250 0.01) 4 = 0.625 mL
2-
M 1 . V 1 = M 2 . V 2
36% V1 = 10% 4
V1 = (10% 4) 36% = 1.11 L
-6 Colligative Properties
:
11-3- : ϡ .
-
(9) :
1-
. (100C)
2-
- H2O C2H5OH (C2H5)2O .
- .
- .
2- Boiling Point Elevation
- Freezing Point Derpression
:
1- .
2- .3- .
(10) :
1- () .
(m) = 2-
0.5 = 1.22 m
(m) = 0.5 1.22 = 0.41 m
30 g = 0.03 kg
=
= 0.41 0.03 = 0.0123 mol
= 5 0.0123 = 406.5 g/mol
(m) = 3-
12 = 1.86 (m)
(m) = 12 1.86 = 6.45 m
6.45 = (n) 1
(n) = 6.45 mol
(C2H6O2) = 6.45 62 = 400 g
* :


(C2H6O2)
1
( )
2
(10 M)
3
( > )
4
()
5
(B A )
6
( )
7
( )
8
( )
9
(1.0 g)
10
( )
11
(1.024 C)
12
( )
13
(7.25 M)
14

:
1- () .
3.5 g 100 g2-
.
3- - -
A : (NH4)2SO4
B : (NH2)2CO
-
= ( ) 100%
=( 8 80 ) 100% = 10%
(A B) = 10%

A = 132 g/mol
A = 8 132 = 0.06 mol
B = 60 g/mol
B = 8 60 = 0.133 mol
4-
= 425 0.785 = 334 g
= 45 152 = 0.296 mol
= 0.296 0.425 = 0.7 M
= 0.296 0.334 = 0.87 m

5-




12.5g
0.07 mol
219 mL
0.32 M
194.4 g
1.08 mol
374.56 mL
0.519 M
314.93 g
1.75 mol
1.62 L
1.08 M
6- .
* :
1- :
M 1 . V 1 = M 2 . V 2
1.5 250 = 10 V 2
V 2 ( )= 37.5 g

250 mL
: :
= 250 37.5 = 212.5 mL
2-
-
= 0.35 0.5 = 0.7 M
-
NaOH = 40 g/mol
= 10.0 40 = 0.25 mol
= 0.25 2 = 0.125 M
-
M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2
11.6 25 = M 2 145
M 2 = (11.6 25) 145 = 2 M
3-
Na2SO4 + BaCl2 2NaCl + BaSO4

BaSO4 = 5.28 233 = 0.227 mol
:
BaSO4 = Na2SO4
Na2SO4 = 0.227 mol
Na2SO4 = 0.227 0.25 = 0.09 M
4-
-
AgNO3 (S) + 22.8 kg/mol AgNO3 (aq)
- .
- .
- .
5-
-
- .
-
25 ◦C = 8 g
33 ◦C = 12 g
55 ◦C = 23 g
35 ◦C -
-
- .
6-
28 g -
9 ◦C -
100 mL -
- .
-

1
Nomenclature of Acids and Bases
:
11-4- :
(1):
()



1
HF

2
H2SO4

3
HClO4
( )
4
H3PO4

5
NH4OH

6
Mg(OH)2

()



1

HI
2

H2CO3
3

HClO3
4

HNO3
5

KOH
6

Al(OH)3
(2):
()



1
HClO2

2
HClO

3
H2SO3

4-2 Acids and Bases Properties
:
11-4- : pH
(1)



























:
1- () .
2- :
H2SO4(aq) + Mg(s) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)

Chemistry connections to our changing world
Pg 597 fig.18-4





2CH3COOH(aq) + Mg(s) (CH3COO)2Mg(aq) + H2(g)
3- ( ) .
4- ɺ .
5-



()

֡
()


()
.

4-3
Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases
:
11-4- : H3O+ OH- .
(1) [ H3O+] M10-9=[ OH-]
:
10-14 = [ H+] [ OH- ]KW =
(10-14) (10-9) = 10-5 = [ H+]
1 10-5 M =
(2) (1 10-11 M) OH-
:
[OH-] = (1 10-14) (1 10-11) = 1 10-3 M
[H3O+] > 1 10-7 M
)
NH3 (g) + H2O (l) NH4OH (aq)
(3) :
1- :
H2O(l)



2H+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq)H2SO4(l)
H2O(l)

HNO3(l) H+ (aq) + NO3- (aq)
H2O(l)

H3PO4(l) H+ (aq) + H2PO4- (aq)
H2O(l)


KOH(s) K+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
H2O(l)




NH4OH(l) NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
H2O(l)




Ca(OH)2 (s) Ca2+ (aq) + 2OH-(aq)
(4):
1-


pH

)
110-6 M= [H+]
6

)
110-9 M = [H+]
9

)
110-8 M = [OH-]
6

)
10-4 M 1= [OH-]
10

2-
110-14 M= [OH-] [H+] =Kw



)
110-6 M
110-8 M
)
110-9 M
110-5 M
)
110-6 M
110-8 M
)
110-10 M
10-4 M 1
4-4 :
NeutralorBasicorAcidic : Solutions
:
11-4- : pH .
(1): :
NH4Cl (aq) NH4+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
:
H2O( l ) H+(aq) + OH-(aq)

HCl NH4OH .
(2): :
CH3COONa(l) CH3COO-(aq) + Na+(aq)
:
H2O( l ) H+(aq) + OH-(aq)
NaOH ɡ CH3COOH ݡ .
(5):
1-

pH
[H+]

7
110-7 M

7
110-7 M

7
110-7 M
(2)
- : .

























pH
pH=7
pH
pH=7

- : .

























pH
pH=7
pH
pH=7
: pH pH .
:
1- ̡ pH pH ӡ pH .
2- pH 7
(pH<7)
(pH=7)
(pH>7)






3- pH pH.
4- pH :
.
.
.
.
1) .
:
[H3O+] = [OH-] = 110-7 M
pH = - Log [H3O+]
pH = - Log (110-7)
pH = - (Log 1 + Log 10-7)
pH = - (0 + -7)
pH = 7
2) pH (0.002M)
:
pH = - Log [H3O+]
pH = - Log (210-3)
pH = - (Log 2 + Log 10-3)
pH = - Log 2 - 3 Log 10)
pH = - 0.3 + (31)
pH = 2.7
3) pH 510-4M
:
Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 110-14 M
[H+] = Kw / [OH-]
[H+] = (110-14 ) / (510-4 )
[H+] = 0.210-10 M
pH = - Log [H3O+]
pH = - Log (0.210-10)
pH = - (Log 2 + Log 10-11)
pH = - 0.3 + 11
pH = 10.7
:
pOH = - Log [OH-]
pOH = - Log (510-4)
pOH = - (Log 5 + Log 10-4)
pOH = - Log 5 - log 10-4
pOH = 7.3 - 4 = 3.3
pH + pOH = 14
pH = 14- pOH = 10.7
4) pH = 3.52 ǡ
:
pH = - Log [H3O+]
[H3O+] = 10-3.52
[H3O+] = 10(-4+0.4
[H3O+] = 100.48 10-4
[H3O+] = 3 10-4 M
(6):
1- :
[H3O+]
[OH-]
pH
pOH

1
1 10-14
0
14

1 10-8
1 10-6
8
6

1 10-2
1 10-12
2
12

1 10-6.6
1 10-7.4
6.6
7.4

110-12
1 10-2
12
2

2- - = 3.5
- :
- () ( ) .
- () á ɡ .
- () .
- () .
4-6 Neutralization
:
11-4- : .
(7):
1- ( ) ( ).
2- limestone ( ) slaked lime ( ). pH (7.0-6.5) .
:
pH
pH 7 ( ).
( :
1- ( ) :
HCl(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
2- ()
2HNO3(aq) + Ba(OH)2(aq) Ba(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
() 2 4 .
(3)
:
1- ()








-


-
() (4-2) (4-3).
2- ֡ .
3- pH ϡ pH pH .
4-7 Strength of Acids and Bases
:
11-4- : .
(9):
1- :
) HNO3(l) + H2O( l ) H3O+(aq) + NO3-(aq)
) HCN(l) + H2O( l ) H3O+(aq) + CN-(aq)
) C6H5NH2(s) + H2O(l) OH-(aq) + C6H5NH3+(aq)
) KOH(s) + H2O( l ) OH- (aq) + K+(aq)
4-8
:
11-4- : .
(10):
() H2CO3(l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HCO3- (aq)
HCO3-(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + CO32- (aq)
() HClO4(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + ClO4- (aq)
() H2SO3(l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HSO3- (aq)
HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + SO32- (aq)
4-9
:
11-4- : .
(11):
ʡ :
()
Mg(OH)2(s) + H2O( l ) OH- (aq) + Mg2-(aq)
()
NH4OH(aq) + H2O( l ) OH- (aq) + NH4+(aq)
()
H2C2O4(s) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HC2O4-(aq)
HC2O4-(s) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + C2O42-(aq)
()
HI(l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + I-(aq)

:
1- )
2- ) 4
3- ) 2
4- ) 4,1
5- ) 0.510-3 M
6- ) HNO3
7- )
:





pH



1

HCl


7

H+
Cl-
2

CH3COOH


7

H+
CH3COO-
CH3COOH
3

NH3


7

OH-
NH4+
NH4OH
4

LiOH


7

Li+
OH-
5

HNO3


7

H+, NO3-
6

KOH


7

K+
OH-
7

Ca(OH)2


7

Ca2+ , OH-
8

H3PO4


7

H+ ,PO43-
H3PO4
H2PO4-
HPO42-
:
1- () pH = - Log [H3O+]
pH = - Log (110-1)
pH = 1
() 0.1M pH 1.
2- pH 11.8 , ﺒ 100 .
3- ɡ .
4- . :
() H2CO3 H2SO4 .
() H2CO3(aq) + CaCO3(s)
H2SO4(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaSO4(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
() ѡ .
5-
(Ý) pH 5.5-6.4
(ȝ) .
() 3.5 4.5 pH 4.5 7.0
(1)


Solutions
-1-1 Solutions in Living Systems
3-1-2 Solutions in Non-living Systems :
:
11-3- : .
11- 3 - : . (1) :
1- .
2-


.
.

3-
.
4- ( ) .
3-2 Electrolytes and Non -electrolytes :
:
11-3- : ( ) ().
4-11-2 : .
(1) :
.
- (4) :






















:
1- .
2- .
(2) :
HCl H3O+ Cl- .
C6H12O6
(Arrhenius) :
1- .
2- :
Na+ Ca2+ Al3+ Cu2+ H+ NH4+
Cl- S2- SO42- PO43- OH- CO32-
3- .
4- .
( ) .
( ) . (Cathode) (Anode) . .
3-3 Solubility
3-3 -1 Factors Affecting Solubility
:
11-3- : .
11- 3- : .
11-3- : .
* (2 ):
:
1- . .
2- .
..

:
1- NaOH 0C NaOH 70C .
2- 2NaOH + H2O + CO2 Na2CO3 + H2O 3- ( ) .
4-
.
:
1- ) .
2- :










3- -

- .
- ( ) Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 .





- :














































(2) : Heat of Solution:
.
Hsol∆(Solution = sol ) . Hsol∆ ( ) ( ) . ∆H ( =∆Hsol ) ( = ∆Hsol).
( ) , . . Na CL . .
NaCl (s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ∆H=+774 kg/mol
. ∆HL.e.
. ∆HH .
Na+(g) + Cl-(g) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq
∆HH = - 770 kg/mol
:
NaCl (s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
mol Kg/HH = +4∆HL.e. + ∆= Hsol∆
. .
AgF (s) Ag+(g) + F-(g) HL.e. = + 910 KJ/mol Ag+(g) + F-(g) Ag+(aq) + F-(aq) HH= -931.4 K

AgF (s) Ag+(aq) + F-(aq)
HH = - 20.5 KJ/mol + HL.eHsol =
, , , , Heat of Solvation .
3-3 -2 Crystallization
(3 ) :
- ( ) .
- : NaCl
: KClO3
- NaHCO3 = 13 g/100 mL K2SO4 = 15 g/100 mL NH4HCO3 = KClO3 = 13 g/100 mL NaCl = 35g/100 mL KCl = 39 g/100 mL NH4Cl=46g/100mL KNO3 = 64 g/100 mL
-4 Concentration of Solutions
:
11-3- : : .
11- 3- : .
(4) :
1-
= 74.5 g/mol KCl
KCl = 1 10-3 74.5 = 1.34 10-5 mol
=
4 10-3 = 1.34 10-5
= 1.34 10-5 4 10-3 = 0.335 10-2 L
= 3.35 mL
2-
HCHO = 30 g/mol
=
12.3 = 2.5
= 12.3 2.5 = 30.75 mol
= () = 30.75 30 = 922.5 g
3-
HCl = 18.2 36.5 = 0.5 mol
() = 250 1000 = 0.25 kg
HCl = 0.5 0.25 = 2 m
(5) :
1-
= 2 10-3 g
= 1000 g
(ppm) = 2 10-3 1000 = 2 ppm
) g ((mg) :
. (g)
.(g)
2-
=
Fe2(SO4)3 = 0.24 1.2 = 0.29 mg
(6) :
18% = 30 100%
100 = 30 18 = 540
= 540 100 = 5.4 L
= 5.4 1000 = 5400 mL
= 5400 mL = 5.4 L
(7) :
1-
33% = 40 100%
100 = 40 33
= 1320
= 1320 100 = 13.2 g
= 13.2 g
2-
= 0.45 mol
= 1- 0.45 = 0.55 mol
C6H6 = 78 g/mol
= 0.45 78 = 35.1 g
CHCl3 = 119.5 g/mol
= 0.55 119.5 = 65.725 g
() = 35.1 + 65.725 = 100.825 g
= 35.1 100.825 100%
= 34.8%

1- 12 g NaCl
2- NaOH
1.5 mol
3- 1 mol SO2 1 mol SO3
-
-
-
-5 Diluted Solutions :
:
11- 3- : ɡ .
11- 3 : ѡ .
( :
1-
M 1 . V 1 = M 2 . V 2
250 0.01 = 4 V2
V2 = (250 0.01) 4 = 0.625 mL
2-
M 1 . V 1 = M 2 . V 2
36% V1 = 10% 4
V1 = (10% 4) 36% = 1.11 L
-6 Colligative Properties
:
11-3- : ϡ .
-
(9) :
1-
. (100C)
2-
- H2O C2H5OH (C2H5)2O .
- .
- .
2- Boiling Point Elevation
- Freezing Point Derpression
:
1- .
2- .3- .
(10) :
1- () .
(m) = 2-
0.5 = 1.22 m
(m) = 0.5 1.22 = 0.41 m
30 g = 0.03 kg
=
= 0.41 0.03 = 0.0123 mol
= 5 0.0123 = 406.5 g/mol
(m) = 3-
12 = 1.86 (m)
(m) = 12 1.86 = 6.45 m
6.45 = (n) 1
(n) = 6.45 mol
(C2H6O2) = 6.45 62 = 400 g
* :


(C2H6O2)
1
( )
2
(10 M)
3
( > )
4
()
5
(B A )
6
( )
7
( )
8
( )
9
(1.0 g)
10
( )
11
(1.024 C)
12
( )
13
(7.25 M)
14

:
1- () .
3.5 g 100 g2-
.
3- - -
A : (NH4)2SO4
B : (NH2)2CO
-
= ( ) 100%
=( 8 80 ) 100% = 10%
(A B) = 10%

A = 132 g/mol
A = 8 132 = 0.06 mol
B = 60 g/mol
B = 8 60 = 0.133 mol
4-
= 425 0.785 = 334 g
= 45 152 = 0.296 mol
= 0.296 0.425 = 0.7 M
= 0.296 0.334 = 0.87 m

5-




12.5g
0.07 mol
219 mL
0.32 M
194.4 g
1.08 mol
374.56 mL
0.519 M
314.93 g
1.75 mol
1.62 L
1.08 M
6- .
* :
1- :
M 1 . V 1 = M 2 . V 2
1.5 250 = 10 V 2
V 2 ( )= 37.5 g

250 mL
: :
= 250 37.5 = 212.5 mL
2-
-
= 0.35 0.5 = 0.7 M
-
NaOH = 40 g/mol
= 10.0 40 = 0.25 mol
= 0.25 2 = 0.125 M
-
M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2
11.6 25 = M 2 145
M 2 = (11.6 25) 145 = 2 M
3-
Na2SO4 + BaCl2 2NaCl + BaSO4

BaSO4 = 5.28 233 = 0.227 mol
:
BaSO4 = Na2SO4
Na2SO4 = 0.227 mol
Na2SO4 = 0.227 0.25 = 0.09 M
4-
-
AgNO3 (S) + 22.8 kg/mol AgNO3 (aq)
- .
- .
- .
5-
-
- .
-
25 ◦C = 8 g
33 ◦C = 12 g
55 ◦C = 23 g
35 ◦C -
-
- .
6-
28 g -
9 ◦C -
100 mL -
- .
-

1
Nomenclature of Acids and Bases
:
11-4- :
(1):
()



1
HF

2
H2SO4

3
HClO4
( )
4
H3PO4

5
NH4OH

6
Mg(OH)2

()



1

HI
2

H2CO3
3

HClO3
4

HNO3
5

KOH
6

Al(OH)3
(2):
()



1
HClO2

2
HClO

3
H2SO3

4-2 Acids and Bases Properties
:
11-4- : pH
(1)



























:
1- () .
2- :
H2SO4(aq) + Mg(s) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)

Chemistry connections to our changing world
Pg 597 fig.18-4





2CH3COOH(aq) + Mg(s) (CH3COO)2Mg(aq) + H2(g)
3- ( ) .
4- ɺ .
5-



()

֡
()


()
.

4-3
Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases
:
11-4- : H3O+ OH- .
(1) [ H3O+] M10-9=[ OH-]
:
10-14 = [ H+] [ OH- ]KW =
(10-14) (10-9) = 10-5 = [ H+]
1 10-5 M =
(2) (1 10-11 M) OH-
:
[OH-] = (1 10-14) (1 10-11) = 1 10-3 M
[H3O+] > 1 10-7 M
)
NH3 (g) + H2O (l) NH4OH (aq)
(3) :
1- :
H2O(l)



2H+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq)H2SO4(l)
H2O(l)

HNO3(l) H+ (aq) + NO3- (aq)
H2O(l)

H3PO4(l) H+ (aq) + H2PO4- (aq)
H2O(l)


KOH(s) K+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
H2O(l)




NH4OH(l) NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
H2O(l)




Ca(OH)2 (s) Ca2+ (aq) + 2OH-(aq)
(4):
1-


pH

)
110-6 M= [H+]
6

)
110-9 M = [H+]
9

)
110-8 M = [OH-]
6

)
10-4 M 1= [OH-]
10

2-
110-14 M= [OH-] [H+] =Kw



)
110-6 M
110-8 M
)
110-9 M
110-5 M
)
110-6 M
110-8 M
)
110-10 M
10-4 M 1
4-4 :
NeutralorBasicorAcidic : Solutions
:
11-4- : pH .
(1): :
NH4Cl (aq) NH4+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
:
H2O( l ) H+(aq) + OH-(aq)

HCl NH4OH .
(2): :
CH3COONa(l) CH3COO-(aq) + Na+(aq)
:
H2O( l ) H+(aq) + OH-(aq)
NaOH ɡ CH3COOH ݡ .
(5):
1-

pH
[H+]

7
110-7 M

7
110-7 M

7
110-7 M
(2)
- : .

























pH
pH=7
pH
pH=7

- : .

























pH
pH=7
pH
pH=7
: pH pH .
:
1- ̡ pH pH ӡ pH .
2- pH 7
(pH<7)
(pH=7)
(pH>7)






3- pH pH.
4- pH :
.
.
.
.
1) .
:
[H3O+] = [OH-] = 110-7 M
pH = - Log [H3O+]
pH = - Log (110-7)
pH = - (Log 1 + Log 10-7)
pH = - (0 + -7)
pH = 7
2) pH (0.002M)
:
pH = - Log [H3O+]
pH = - Log (210-3)
pH = - (Log 2 + Log 10-3)
pH = - Log 2 - 3 Log 10)
pH = - 0.3 + (31)
pH = 2.7
3) pH 510-4M
:
Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 110-14 M
[H+] = Kw / [OH-]
[H+] = (110-14 ) / (510-4 )
[H+] = 0.210-10 M
pH = - Log [H3O+]
pH = - Log (0.210-10)
pH = - (Log 2 + Log 10-11)
pH = - 0.3 + 11
pH = 10.7
:
pOH = - Log [OH-]
pOH = - Log (510-4)
pOH = - (Log 5 + Log 10-4)
pOH = - Log 5 - log 10-4
pOH = 7.3 - 4 = 3.3
pH + pOH = 14
pH = 14- pOH = 10.7
4) pH = 3.52 ǡ
:
pH = - Log [H3O+]
[H3O+] = 10-3.52
[H3O+] = 10(-4+0.4
[H3O+] = 100.48 10-4
[H3O+] = 3 10-4 M
(6):
1- :
[H3O+]
[OH-]
pH
pOH

1
1 10-14
0
14

1 10-8
1 10-6
8
6

1 10-2
1 10-12
2
12

1 10-6.6
1 10-7.4
6.6
7.4

110-12
1 10-2
12
2

2- - = 3.5
- :
- () ( ) .
- () á ɡ .
- () .
- () .
4-6 Neutralization
:
11-4- : .
(7):
1- ( ) ( ).
2- limestone ( ) slaked lime ( ). pH (7.0-6.5) .
:
pH
pH 7 ( ).
( :
1- ( ) :
HCl(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
2- ()
2HNO3(aq) + Ba(OH)2(aq) Ba(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
() 2 4 .
(3)
:
1- ()








-


-
() (4-2) (4-3).
2- ֡ .
3- pH ϡ pH pH .
4-7 Strength of Acids and Bases
:
11-4- : .
(9):
1- :
) HNO3(l) + H2O( l ) H3O+(aq) + NO3-(aq)
) HCN(l) + H2O( l ) H3O+(aq) + CN-(aq)
) C6H5NH2(s) + H2O(l) OH-(aq) + C6H5NH3+(aq)
) KOH(s) + H2O( l ) OH- (aq) + K+(aq)
4-8
:
11-4- : .
(10):
() H2CO3(l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HCO3- (aq)
HCO3-(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + CO32- (aq)
() HClO4(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + ClO4- (aq)
() H2SO3(l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HSO3- (aq)
HSO3-(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + SO32- (aq)
4-9
:
11-4- : .
(11):
ʡ :
()
Mg(OH)2(s) + H2O( l ) OH- (aq) + Mg2-(aq)
()
NH4OH(aq) + H2O( l ) OH- (aq) + NH4+(aq)
()
H2C2O4(s) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + HC2O4-(aq)
HC2O4-(s) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + C2O42-(aq)
()
HI(l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + I-(aq)

:
1- )
2- ) 4
3- ) 2
4- ) 4,1
5- ) 0.510-3 M
6- ) HNO3
7- )
:





pH



1

HCl


7

H+
Cl-
2

CH3COOH


7

H+
CH3COO-
CH3COOH
3

NH3


7

OH-
NH4+
NH4OH
4

LiOH


7

Li+
OH-
5

HNO3


7

H+, NO3-
6

KOH


7

K+
OH-
7

Ca(OH)2


7

Ca2+ , OH-
8

H3PO4


7

H+ ,PO43-
H3PO4
H2PO4-
HPO42-
:
1- () pH = - Log [H3O+]
pH = - Log (110-1)
pH = 1
() 0.1M pH 1.
2- pH 11.8 , ﺒ 100 .
3- ɡ .
4- . :
() H2CO3 H2SO4 .
() H2CO3(aq) + CaCO3(s)
H2SO4(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaSO4(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
() ѡ .
5-
(Ý) pH 5.5-6.4
(ȝ) .
() 3.5 4.5 pH 4.5 7.0
(1)

pg ;g hgHszgm (hgtwg ,Yojfv til;) glh]m hg;dldhx wt11 hgHszgm hgtwg hg;dldhx pg wt11 til; ,Yojfv


: ( ) 11 || : || :













:
1436

" " 16 -
66 " "
:

     
01-30-2011   : 2
:
:
:

: Jan 2011
: 420
:
:
  : oman
:
:
: 15 [+]
: 0.01
: 01-31-2011 [+]
: 0
: 10

:
:

: :













     
09-15-2011   : 3
:
:

: Sep 2011
: 1960
:
:
  : iraq
:
:
: 20
: 7 [+]
: 0.00
: 03-03-2012 [+]
: 0
: 10
nass

:
nass
:

: :

..












   nass  
10-24-2011   : 4
:
:
::::
::::
:
 

: Jan 2011
: 351
:
:
  : oman
:
:
ڌ
: 2,341 [+]
: 1.41
: 08-17-2013 [+]
: 60
: 732

 -                                

:)
:
:

: :












: { ~ (1)
~ ~
_(
:*

:






[ Ø ]

     
10-04-2012   : 5
:
:

: Oct 2012
: 6129
:
:
  : oman
:
:
: 19
: 3 [+]
: 0.00
: 02-05-2014 [+]
: 0
: 10

:
:

: :
Mm mr.mmm10@hotmail.com












     
11-03-2014   : 6
:
:

: Nov 2014
: 7224
:
:
  : oman
:
:
: 17
: 1 [+]
: 0.00
: 11-03-2014 [+]
: 0
: 10
daoo3h

:
daoo3h
:

: :

...












   daoo3h  

« + | »
()

(Tags)
, , , , , 11 , , ,

, , 17 10-03-2012 07:52 PM
11 ( ) 5 03-13-2012 10:55 PM
11 2 12-06-2010 05:36 PM
11 1 3 12-06-2010 05:30 PM

: 1 ( 0 1)
 




Loading...

 RSS Feeds - - - -

Powered by vBulletin Version 3.8.7
Copyright ©2000 - 2015, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd Trans
F.T.G.Y 3.0 BY: D-sAb.NeT 2011
        http://www.moonsat.net/vb